Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19
Ivermectin compared to no treatment for prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection We found one study. Mortality up to 28 days was the only outcome eligible for primary analysis. We are uncertain whether ivermectin reduces or increases mortality compared to no treatment (0 participants died; 1 study, 304 participants; very low-certainty evidence).
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Current Treatment Options for Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease and a leading cause for impaired function and disability with significant treatment costs and socio-economic burden. Despite recent achievements in the knowledge on disease pathogenesis, the treatment is still a challenge and contrary to the infla …
Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19
Abstract. Background: Remdesivir is an antiviral medicine with properties to inhibit viral replication of SARS-CoV-2. Positive results from early studies attracted media attention and led to emergency use authorisation of remdesivir in COVID-19. A thorough understanding of the current evidence regarding the effects of remdesivir as a treatment
Treatment Escalation vs Immediate Initiation of Highly
Importance: Treatment strategies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) vary markedly between Denmark and Sweden. The difference in the association of these national strategies with clinical outcomes is unknown. Objective: To investigate the association of national differences in disease-modifying treatment (DMT) strategies for RRMS with disability outcomes.
Treatment of Gluteal Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review …
There was good evidence for using platelet-rich plasma in grades 1 and 2 tendinopathy. Shockwave therapy, exercise, and corticosteroids showed good outcomes, but the effect of corticosteroids was short term. Bursectomy with or without iliotibial band release was a valuable treatment option in grades …
MATH+ protocol for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 …
The core treatment strategy to manage the pulmonary phase includes the combination of methylprednisolone, ascorbic acid, thiamine, and heparin (MATH+ protocol). The rationale for the MATH+ protocol is reviewed in this paper.
Treatment of Hereditary Angioedema
Pharmacological treatment is based on 3 pillars: treatment of acute angioedema attacks (on-demand treatment), short-term (preprocedure) prophylaxis, and long-term prophylaxis. The 4 drugs that are currently available for the treatment of acute angioedema attacks (purified plasma-derived human C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate, icatibant acetate
Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of
Background: Primary liver cancer, around 90% are hepatocellular carcinoma in China, is the fourth most common malignancy and the second leading cause of tumor-related death, thereby posing a significant threat to the life and health of the Chinese people. Summary: Since the publication of Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer (2017 Edition) in 2018, additional high
Molnupiravir, an Oral Antiviral Treatment for COVID-19
Background: Easily distributed oral antivirals are urgently needed to treat coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), prevent progression to severe illness, and block transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We report the results of a Phase 2a trial evaluating the safety, tolerability, and antiviral efficacy of molnupiravir in the treatment of COVID-19
Exercise vs Conventional Treatment for Treatment of
Objective: Physical exercise has obvious effects on bone loss, pain relief, and improvement of bone metabolism indexes in patients with osteoporosis, but currently lacks sufficient evidence. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to synthesize and present the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of exercises in the treatment of primary osteoporosis.
Treatment of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
Background: Evidence is urgently needed to support treatment decisions for children with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Methods: We performed an international observational cohort study of clinical and outcome data regarding suspected MIS-C that had been uploaded by physicians onto a Web-based database.
[Guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar
Numerous guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder have been published in the recent years. A review focusing on recent international and French guidelines the last 5 years on the management of bipolar depression was conducted. The comparison of guidelines showed differences in the choice of …
Otomycosis: Diagnosis and treatment
Aspergillus and Candida spp are the most frequently isolated fungi in patients with otomycosis. The diagnosis of otitis externa relies on the patient's history, otoscopic examination under microscopic control, and imaging studies. Direct preparation of the specimens, particularly with optical bright …
Epilepsy: Treatment Options
Treatment should begin with monotherapy. The appropriate choice of medication varies depending on seizure type. Routine monitoring of drug levels is not correlated with reduction in adverse effects or improvement in effectiveness and is not recommended. When patients have been seizure free for two to five years, discontinuation of antiepileptic
Calciphylaxis: risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment
Calciphylaxis is a rare but devastating condition that has continued to challenge the medical community since its early descriptions in the scientific literature many decades ago. It is predominantly seen in patients with chronic kidney failure treated with dialysis (uremic calciphylaxis) but is als …
Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Akathisia: Role of
Akathisia is one of the most prevalent and distressing adverse effects associated with antipsychotic drug treatment. Propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist, is currently considered a first-line treatment for antipsychotic-induced akathisia (AIA). Surprisingly, the evidence …
Treatment of urticarial vasculitis: A systematic review
Treatment is dictated by the severity of skin and systemic involvement and the underlying systemic disease. This is a comprehensive systematic review of the efficacy of current UV treatment options. We searched for relevant studies in 7 databases, including MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science.
Treatment of Sarcoidosis: A Multidisciplinary Approach
Treatment is indicated to protect organ function and decrease symptomatic burden. Current treatment options focus on in … Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown etiology defined by the presence of noncaseating granulomatous inflammation that can cause organ damage and diminished quality of life.
An update on the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia
This article reviews the analgesic options for the treatment of PHN and suggests that tricyclic antidepressants, membrane stabilizers, opioids, and lidocaine patch may demonstrate analgesic efficacy in this group of patients. These data may potentially help clinicians who attempt to provide analgesi …
Lung cancer: Biology and treatment options
Treatment options for lung cancer include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy. Therapeutic-modalities recommendations depend on several factors, including the type and stage of cancer. Despite the improvements in diagnosis and therapy made during the past 25 years, the prognosis for patients with lung cancer is still
Toward a Treatment Sequencing Strategy: A Systematic
The rapidly changing treatment landscape for advanced gastric cancer includes increasing options for refractory disease. With multiple first-line platinum-based regimens, identification of those with the best benefit-to-risk ratio may provide guidance on treatment sequencing strategies. This article …
Isthmocele: an overview of diagnosis and treatment
The treatment includes clinical or surgical management, depending on the size of the defect, the presence of symptoms, the presence of secondary infertility and plans of childbearing. Surgical management includes minimally invasive approaches with sparing techniques such as hysteroscopic, laparoscopic or transvaginal procedures according to the
Delusional Parasitosis: Diagnosis and Treatment
Shared psychotic disorder - folie à deux - is a known mode of presentation in delusional parasitosis. More than one member within a family may experience the same delusional state. For diagnosis and treatment of DP, a close collaboration among dermatologists, psychiatrists, and parasitologists is essential.
Treatment for Anhedonia: A Neuroscience Driven Approach
Anhedonia, or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities, is characteristic of depression, some types of anxiety, as well as substance abuse and schizophrenia. Anhedonia is a predictor of poor long-term outcomes, including suicide, and poor treatment response. Because extant psychological and …
Treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia
The emergence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with resistance to penicillin, macrolide, and other drugs has made the treatment of pneumococcal infections more complicated. Although resistance to penicillin has had a profound impact on the outcome of meningitis, it has had little impact on the mo …
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte treatment for anti-PD-1
In exploratory analyses, we found T cells recognizing multiple types of cancer mutations were detected after TIL treatment and were enriched in responding patients. Neoantigen-reactive T cell clonotypes increased and persisted in peripheral blood after treatment. Cell therapy with autologous TILs is generally safe and clinically active and may
Update: Treatment of necrobiosis lipoidica
At the same time, standard treatment with topical or intralesional corticosteroids does not always show satisfactory results. We therefore set out to evaluate whether the various treatment regimens published since 2000 have actually expanded the therapeutic armamentarium in a relevant manner.
Dermatomyositis: Diagnosis and treatment
The treatment approach proposed by this continuing medical education series discusses both established and novel therapies for DM and highlights the importance of considering lesion type, degree of muscle involvement, presence of systemic symptoms, presence of MSAs, and patient age when determining the best treatment approach for a patient with DM.
Diagnosis and treatment of labral tear
Conservative treatment consists of rest, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, pain medications, modification of activities, physical therapy, and intra-articular injection. When fail to respond to conservative treatment, surgical treatment including labral debridement, labral repair, and labral reconstruction is often indicated.
Prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds with zinc
Treatment of colds with zinc reduced the mean daily clinical score and this was statistically significant on the fourth and fifth day of medication. Similarly, medication also reduced the mean daily nasal secretion weight and total tissue count and these reductions were statistically significant on days two and six for nasal secretion weights
Efficacy and safety of baricitinib for the treatment of
Background: Baricitinib is an oral selective Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor with known anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in combination with standard of care for the treatment of hospitalised adults with COVID-19.
An Overview of PARP Inhibitors for the Treatment of Breast
PARP inhibitors are being investigated in early BC, in novel combinations, and in patients without germline BRCA mutations, including those with somatic BRCA mutations and other HRR gene mutations. Ongoing phase 2/3 studies include PARP inhibitors combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of triple-negative BC.
Antidotal treatment of cyanide poisoning
Supportive treatment is efficient but does not modify the time course or the body burden of cyanide. Numerous antidotes are available. Oxygen counteracts efficiently cyanide action at the mitochondrial level. Sodium thiosulfate, methemoglobin forming agents and cobalt compounds act efficiently by complexing or transforming cyanide into non
Diagnosis and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease
Peptic ulcer disease continues to be a source of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately two-thirds of patients found to have peptic ulcer disease are asymptomatic. In symptomatic patients, the most common presenting symptom of peptic ulcer disease is epigastric pain, which may …
The combined treatment of Molnupiravir and Favipiravir
Moreover, treatment of infected animals nearly completely prevented transmission to co-housed untreated sentinels. Both drugs result in an increased mutation frequency of the remaining viral RNA recovered from the lungs of treated animals. In the combo-treated hamsters, an increased frequency of C-to-T mutations in the viral RNA is observed as
Cystitis and Pyelonephritis: Diagnosis, Treatment, and
Urinary tract infections, including cystitis and pyelonephritis, are the most common bacterial infection primary care clinicians encounter in office practice. Dysuria and frequency in the absence of vaginal discharge and vaginal irritation are highly predictive of cystitis. Urine culture is recommen …
Cemiplimab monotherapy for first-line treatment of
Background: We aimed to examine cemiplimab, a programmed cell death 1 inhibitor, in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of at least 50%. Methods: In EMPOWER-Lung 1, a multicentre, open-label, global, phase 3 study, eligible patients recruited in 138 clinics from 24 countries (aged ≥18 years with histologically or
Aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer
Estradiol, the most potent endogenous estrogen, is biosynthesized from androgens by the cytochrome P450 enzyme complex called aromatase. Aromatase is present in breast tissue, and intratumoral aromatase is the source of local estrogen production in breast cancer tissues. Inhibition of aromatase is a …
Hypothyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment
Clinical hypothyroidism affects one in 300 people in the United States, with a higher prevalence among female and older patients. Symptoms range from minimal to life-threatening (myxedema coma); more common symptoms include cold intolerance, fatigue, weight gain, dry skin, constipation, and voice ch …
Treatment of Mycobacterium marinum cutaneous infections
Surgical treatment is not usually recommended and must be cautiously applied. Cryotherapy, X-ray therapy, electrodesiccation, photodynamic therapy and local hyperthermic therapy have been reported as effective therapeutic alternatives. M. marinum infection should always be included in the differential diagnosis of all cases with poor-healing
Treatment Approaches to Lacunar Stroke
Treatment Approaches to Lacunar Stroke J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2019 Aug;28(8):2055-2078. doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2019.05.004. Epub 2019 May 28. Authors Alvin S Das 1 , Robert W Regenhardt 1 , Steven K Feske 2 , Mahmut Edip Gurol 3 Affiliations 1 Department of Neurology
Kienbock's disease: diagnosis and treatment
Kienbock's disease, or osteonecrosis of the lunate, can lead to chronic, debilitating wrist pain. Etiologic factors include vascular and skeletal variations combined with trauma or repetitive loading. In stage I Kienbock's disease, plain radiographs appear normal, and bone scintigraphy or magnetic r …
Deep Brain Stimulation for Treatment-Resistant Depression
Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects approximately 4.4% of the world's population. One third of MDD patients do not respond to routine psychotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic treatment and are said to suffer from treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly …
Hydroxychloroquine: a multifaceted treatment in lupus
The efficacy of antimalarials, especially hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), in preventing systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flares is well demonstrated. However, many studies show that the percentage of SLE patients treated with HCQ remains low. By blocking the toll-like receptor 7 and 9 in plasmacytoid de …
Atogepant for the Preventive Treatment of Migraine
Background: Atogepant is an oral, small-molecule, calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist that is being investigated for the preventive treatment of migraine. Methods: In a phase 3, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned adults with 4 to 14 migraine days per month in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive a once-daily dose of oral atogepant (10 mg, 30 mg, or 60 mg) or placebo for 12 weeks.
Acupuncture for treatment of autism spectrum disorders
Background. There has been lack of reviews of evidence on efficacy, methodology, and/or safety of acupuncture in autism spectrum disorders. This paper examines the emerging evidence of the effects of acupuncture in the treatment of autistic children. Method. A literature review was completed via Med …
Semaglutide 2.4 mg for the Treatment of Obesity: Key
Objective: The obesity epidemic is a public health concern, warranting further research into pharmacological treatments for weight management (WM) as an adjunct to lifestyle interventions. The Semaglutide Treatment Effect in People with obesity (STEP) program aims to investigate the effect of semaglutide versus placebo on weight loss, safety, and tolerability in adults with obesity or overweight.